Salivary Glands

Salivary glands are exocrine glands in mammals. These glands are found in mouth and throat. They are ducts and produce saliva and an enzyme, amylase. Amylase breaks starch into maltose. The major salivary glands are parotid glands, submandibular and, sublingual glands.

Parotid Glands:

these are pair of glands present in the subcutaneous tissues of face and overlying the mandibular ramus. Parotid glands secrete serous fluid which enters into oral cavity through Stensen’s duct. These are the largest pair of glands but produce only 25% of saliva. Mixture of enzymes like salivary emylase, maltase, lysozyme, salts and, water. Saliva converts starch into maltose and which is then converted into glucose.

Submandibular Glands:

These are situated below the lower jaw and superior to digastric muscles. They secrete a mixture of serous and mucous fluid. 70% of the saliva is produced by these glands though they are smaller than parotid glands.

Sublingual glands:
These are situated below the tongue. The secretion is mainly mucous. This is unlike from other two glands. These do not secrete from striated glands and exit from excretory ducts. 5% of saliva is produced from these glands.

Minor Salivary Glands:

600 minor salivary glands are present in the oral cavity of the in the lamina propria of mucous membrane. These salivary glands are 1 to 2 millimeters in diameter. These are surrounded by connective tissue but not encapsulated with it. In a tiny lobule, acini are connected to each other. Minor salivary gland have common excretory duct or may have separate excretory ducts. These have many functions such as coating the oral cavity with saliva and are mainly mucous in nature.

Von Ebner’s glands

are found in circumvallate papillae of tongue. They secrete serous fluid and also begin lipid hydrolysis. They are essential to the taste of the food.

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