What is Biliary Dyskenisia?
is a condition which is caused by a motility disorder of the muscle namely, the sphincter of oddi. The sphincter of oddi is located at the base of the biliary tree. The tree like structure of the main bile duct is so referred to as it joins to all branching capillaries carrying bile and pancreatic juices.
It affects the gall bladder and is often referred to as Gallbladder disease without gall stones. The gall bladder gets filled with bile in between meal times. When food is eaten, the gall bladder empties all the bile into the bile duct and eventually into the first part of the small intestine, the duodenum. The bile and the pancreatic juices act on the food and breaks it down.
When the gallbladder and the bile duct do not contract properly and empty the accumulated bile into the duodenum, the said condition arises. The excess retention of bile in the bile duct creates an abdominal pressure causing the symptoms below.
Symptoms of Biliary Dyskenisia
- This condition can remain without any symptoms in some individuals.
- Cramping and pain in the right quadrant of the abdomen.
- The intake of food may trigger the pain.
- Having heavy, fatty meals may cause more intense symptoms.
- Bloating and gas.
- Sometimes symptoms persist even after cholecystectomy or the surgical removal of the pancreas.
- Abdominal ultrasound is done to rule out gall stones and to look for dilation in bile ducts.
- Endoscopy of the upper abdomen is also performed to gauge the extent of the problem.
- A test where the ejection fraction of the gall bladder is measured is often conducted. The ejection fraction rate is the speed at which the gall bladder intakes bile and then expels it.
Treatment of Biliary Dyskenisia
- Cholecystectomy or the removal of the gall bladder brings relief to most of the patients (about 75%) suffering from this condition.
- The surgery could be conducted non invasively as in laproscopy or the abdomen could be opened up as the surgeon may deem necessary.